IPA(The International Phonetic Association)
The IPA is the major as well as the oldest representative organisation for phoneticians. It was established in 1886 in Paris.
The aim of the IPA is to promote the scientific study of phonetics and the various practical applications of that science.
In furtherance of this aim, the IPA provides the academic community world-wide with a notational standard for the phonetic representation of all languages - the International Phonetic Alphabet (also IPA).
The latest version of the IPA Alphabet was published in 2005.
[李東昇的說明]簡單的說:KK音標,Johns音標 都是來自於 IPA
(UPA 多語通行拼音 也是 來自 IPA)